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Live Updates: Hurricanes and Wildfires

Tropical Storm Nicholas lashed weary residents with powerful wind gusts and heavy rain in Texas on Tuesday, sweeping across the Houston metropolitan area on a path toward Louisiana.

The center of the storm made landfall as a hurricane over the Gulf Coast of Texas just after 12:30 a.m. Central time on the eastern part of the Matagorda Peninsula, about 10 miles west-southwest of Sargent Beach, according to the National Hurricane Center.

By 10 a.m. it had been downgraded to a tropical storm, and Nicholas was about 10 miles southeast of Houston. Its maximum sustained winds had eased slightly to 45 miles per hour as it moved northeast at six m.p.h.

“Overall, the storm is weakening as it continues to push inland,” said Tim Cady, a meteorologist with the National Weather Service in Houston. “But conditions are improving.”

Mr. Cady said the storm would continue to lose intensity in the next six to 12 hours as it moved inland.

At a news conference on Tuesday morning, Lina Hidalgo, the top executive in Harris County, which includes Houston, said the worst of Nicholas appeared to be over and cleanup crews were beginning to assess damage.

Major flooding that had been the primary concern — and led to the closings of schools and businesses across the city — did not materialize, she said.

“Thankfully, thankfully, it became more of a wind event and it is moving out of our region,” she said of the storm.

Debris littered streets in many neighborhoods, but by midmorning, many Houstonians had resumed usual routines, walking dogs or driving around.

No deaths or serious injuries from the storm had been reported, Ms. Hidalgo said, nor major damage.

Power outages in the Houston area accounted for some of the most visible damage, Mr. Cady said.

About 387,000 customers in Texas were without electricity Tuesday morning, according to CenterPoint Energy, which said that extended power outages were likely in the Houston area.

Nicholas was expected to bring up to a foot of rain to parts of coastal Texas, the center said, raising concerns for flash flooding. More than a foot of rain fell in Galveston, and some areas in Galveston County, which neighbors Houston, were inundated with up to six feet of water.

But some coastal communities had lighter rain and wind gusts as the morning wore on.

The threat of flash floods was expected to linger for several hours, especially in Louisiana, where Nicholas is headed, Mr. Cady said. “It’s going to impact portions of Louisiana during the day today,” he added.

People are still recovering after Hurricane Ida battered the southern reaches of Louisiana two weeks ago.

The storm is forecast to move more slowly to the northeast later on Tuesday, and then to pivot eastward over Louisiana on Wednesday, unleashing up to 10 inches of rainfall from the upper Texas coastal area into central to southern Louisiana, and southern Mississippi and Alabama, the center said.

Up to 20 inches of rain could fall in isolated storms in Louisiana.

Zach Davidson, spokesman for the Galveston County Office of Emergency Management, said residents should remain cautious — even if the streets look manageable in their own neighborhoods.

“It may be all right where you are, but if you get on the road to go somewhere else and those roads get flooded, it becomes a very dangerous situation,” Mr. Davidson said.

Officials in Louisiana were also mindful of lessons from past storms.

“I know that bracing for another storm while we’re still responding to, and trying to recover from, Hurricane Ida is not the position that we wanted to be in,” Gov. John Bel Edwards of Louisiana said at a news conference on Monday afternoon. “But it is a situation that we are prepared for.”

Nicholas formed on Sunday in the Gulf of Mexico, the 14th named storm of the 2021 Atlantic hurricane season.

How to Decode Hurricane Season Terms

Karen Zraick
Christina Caron

Karen Zraick and Christina CaronReporting on the weather 🌬️

How to Decode Hurricane Season Terms

Karen Zraick
Christina Caron

Karen Zraick and Christina CaronReporting on the weather 🌬️

Emily Kask for The New York Times

What is “landfall”? And what are you truly facing when you’re in the eye of the storm?

During hurricane season, news coverage and forecasts can include a host of confusing terms. Let’s take a look at what they mean

How to Decode Hurricane Season Terms

Karen Zraick
Christina Caron

Karen Zraick and Christina CaronReporting on the weather 🌬️

You may read about hurricanes, typhoons or cyclones. So what’s the difference? Location.

“Hurricane” is largely used in the North Atlantic and Northeast Pacific; “typhoon,” in the Northwest Pacific; and “cyclone” in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean.

The Atlantic season, when hurricanes and tropical storms are most likely to hit the U.S., runs from June 1 to Nov. 30.

How to Decode Hurricane Season Terms

Karen Zraick
Christina Caron

Karen Zraick and Christina CaronReporting on the weather 🌬️

NOAA

Here’s what all these storms have in common: They’re low-pressure circular systems that form over warm waters. A system becomes a tropical storm when its winds exceed 39 miles an hour. At 74 miles an hour, it’s a hurricane.

How to Decode Hurricane Season Terms

Karen Zraick
Christina Caron

Karen Zraick and Christina CaronReporting on the weather 🌬️

Forecasters regularly talk about parts of the storm like the eye, the eyewall and the wall cloud:

  • The eye of a storm is the circular area of relatively light winds, even shining sun, at its center. Conditions may be calm within the eye.

  • But wrapped around it is the eyewall, a ring of cumulonimbus clouds also known as a wall cloud. It contains the strongest winds of a hurricane.

How to Decode Hurricane Season Terms

Karen Zraick
Christina Caron

Karen Zraick and Christina CaronReporting on the weather 🌬️

Tamir Kalifa for The New York Times

Perhaps counterintuitively, a storm doesn’t make landfall when its outer edge meets land.

Instead, landfall is when the eye crosses the shoreline.

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It has been a dizzying couple of months for meteorologists as the arrival of peak hurricane season — August through November — led to a run of named storms that formed in quick succession, bringing stormy weather, flooding and damaging winds to parts of the United States and the Caribbean.

Tropical Storm Mindy hit the Florida Panhandle on Sept. 8, just hours after it formed in the Gulf of Mexico. Hurricane Larry, which formed on Sept. 1, strengthened to a Category 3 storm two days later and then weakened. It struck Canada as a Category 1 hurricane and caused widespread power outages in Newfoundland.

Ida battered Louisiana as a Category 4 hurricane on Aug. 29 before its remnants brought deadly flooding to the New York area. Two other tropical storms, Julian and Kate, both fizzled out within a day at the same time.

Not long before them, in mid-August, Tropical Storm Fred made landfall in the Florida Panhandle and Hurricane Grace hit Haiti and Mexico. Tropical Storm Henri knocked out power and brought record rainfall to the Northeastern United States on Aug. 22.

The links between hurricanes and climate change are becoming more apparent. A warming planet can expect to see stronger hurricanes over time, and a higher incidence of the most powerful storms. But the overall number of storms could drop, because factors like stronger wind shear could keep weaker storms from forming.

Ana became the first named storm of the season on May 23, making this the seventh year in a row that a named storm developed in the Atlantic Ocean before the official start of the season on June 1.

In May, scientists with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration forecast that there would be 13 to 20 named storms this year, six to 10 of which would be hurricanes, and three to five major hurricanes of Category 3 or higher in the Atlantic. In early August, in a midseason update to the forecast, they continued to warn that this year’s hurricane season would be an above-average one, suggesting a busy end to the season.

NOAA updated its forecast in early August, predicting 15 to 21 named storms, including seven to 10 hurricanes, by the end of the season on Nov. 30.

Last year, there were 30 named storms, including six major hurricanes, forcing meteorologists to exhaust the alphabet for the second time and move to using Greek letters.

It was the highest number of storms on record, surpassing the 28 from 2005, and included the second-highest number of hurricanes on record.

Jacey Fortin, J. David Goodman, Christine Hauser, Jesus Jiménez, Christopher Mele, Edgar Sandoval and Daniel Victor contributed reporting.

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